The impact of global changes at soil resources and agricultural production
It is considered that the driving forces of global change are: changes in the composition of the atmosphere; climate change; and land use changes caused by socio-economic factors and climate change. The purpose of the article was to identify and summarize the available effects of global change on the world's soil resources and to identify the main trends in agricultural production associated with these changes. The article describes the most visible evidences of global change on the planet, in particular climate changes (including the territory of Ukraine). It was revealed that in Ukraine, the increasing of average temperature is predicted to 2°C with fluctuations during the year by 1,5-2,6°C, in 2025-2049, and in 2050-2074 the increasing of average annual temperature is predicted by 3,45°C relative to the base period (1980-2004). It was studied and summarized evidence of the impact of climate change on soil resources related to urban sprawl, melting ice, human impact, extreme events, flooding etc; and on agriculture, such as the earlier emergence of green forest limits shifts, the emergence of a growing number of alien plant species, increase / decrease in crop yields etc. The impacts on the soil because of climate change was attributed with the influence of organic matter, soil biology and soil degradation. The factors of positive and negative impact of global warming and the increasing CO2 on the yield of crops were analyzed, which included the positive physiological effects of CO2 and the extended growing season (during simulation improve yield) and the reducing of water availability, poor vernalization and reduce the growing season (during simulation lowering productivity). The modern methods of adaptation and mitigation of these changes in different regions were described, including management in areas prone to floods and other risks; urban planning and program updates, ecological restoration; soil conservation; afforestation and reforestation; green infrastructure etc.
Adams, R., Hurd, B., Lenhart, S., and Leary, N. (1998), Effects of global climate change on agriculture: an interpretative review. Inter-Research, vol. 11, pp. 19–30.
Olesen, J., Trnka, M., Kersebaumc, K., Skjelvåg, A., Seguine, B., Peltonen-Sainiof, P., Rossi, F., Kozyra, J., and Micale, F. (2011), Impacts and adaptation of European crop production systems to climate change. European Journal of Agronomy, vol. 34, pp. 96–112.
European commission. Climate change as a driver for European agriculture : ec.europa.eu/research/agriculture/scar/pdf/scar_foresight_climate_change_en.pdf.
Moore, F. and Lobell, D. (2014), Adaptation potential of European agriculture in response to climate change. Nature Climate Change, vol. 4, pp. 610–614.
Supit, I., van Diepenb, C.A., de Wit, A.J.W., Wolf, J., Kabat, P., Baruthc, B., and Ludwig, F. (2012), Assessing climate change effects on European crop yields using the Crop Growth Monitoring System and a weather generator. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, vol. 164, pp. 96–111.
Tinker, B., Goudriaan, J., Teng, P., Swift M., Linder S., Ingram J., and van de Geijn, S. Global change impacts on agriculture, forestry and soils: The programme of the global change and terrestrial ecosystems core project of IGBP, available at http://www.fao.org/docrep/w5183e/w5183e0e.htm#TopOfPage.
The ukrainian week. Do not panic: climate change may prove useful for agriculture [Bez paniky: klimatychni zminy mozhut' vyyavytysya korysnymy dlya sil's'koho hospodarstv], available at: http://tyzhden.ua/Society/55863.
NOAA Climate. Data Snapshots, available at https://www.climate.gov/sites/default/files/bigeurope.png.
Alder, J.R. and Hostetler, S.W. (2013). CMIP5 Global Climate Change Viewer. US Geological Survey, available at: http://regclim.coas.oregonstate.edu/gccv/index.html doi:10.5066/F72J68W0.
National center for environmental information, available at: http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov.
NOAA Climate, available at: www.climate.gov/maps-data#global-climate-dashboard.
Earth System Research Laboratory. Annual Mean Global Carbon Dioxide Growth Rates, available at: http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/trends/global.html#global_data.
Ukrainian public organization of environmental direction "Living Planet". Kyoto protocol, [Kiot•s'kyy protocol], available at: http://www.zhiva-planeta.org.ua/diyalnist/klimat/kiot-protokol.html.
The world bank. CO2 emissions (kt), available at: http://data.worldbank.org/ indicator/EN.ATM.CO2E.KT/countries/CN-US-UA-Z7-1W?display=graph.
IPCC, 2014: Summary for policymakers. In: Climate Change 2014: Impacts,Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Field, C.B., V.R. Barros, D.J. Dokken, K.J. Mach, M.D. Mastrandrea, T.E. Bilir, M. Chatterjee, K.L. Ebi, Y.O. Estrada, R.C. Genova, B. Girma, E.S. Kissel, A.N. Levy, S. MacCracken, P.R. Mastrandrea, and L.L.White (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp. 1-32.
Green wave [Zelena chwila]. Adapting to climate change in agriculture Ukraine [Adaptatsiya do zmin klimatu v sil's'komu hospodarstvi Ukrayiny], available at: http://ecoclubua.com/2015/07/adaptatsiya-do-zmin-klimatu-v-s-h/.
NASA. Images of Change, available at: http://climate.nasa.gov/state_of_flux#Landrecovery_Ukraine.jpg.
The guardian. Soil erosion threatens to leave Earth hungry, available at: http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2010/dec/14/soil-erosion-environment-review-vidal.
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). The Latin America and the Caribbean Atlas of our Changing Environment (2010), available at: http://www.unep.org/publications/contents/pub_details_search.asp?ID=4169.
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). The Atlas of our Changing Environment (2009), DEWA.
Global food security. Global issues, available at: http://www.foodsecurity.ac.uk/issue/global.html#refs.
Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center. ESI, available at: http://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/data/collection/esi/maps/services.
Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center. 2005 ESI. Benchmarking National Environmental Stewardship Appendix C Variable Profiles and Data , available at: http://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/es/esi/c_variableprofiles.pdf.
Szoege, H.M. (2007). Comparing development sustainability in Belarus, Poland and Ukraine with special respect to rural areas, available at: http://www.wne.sggw.pl/czasopisma/pdf/PRS_2007_T1(16)_s53.pdf.
United nations convention to combat desertification. World atlas the desertification, available at: www.unccd.int/Lists/SiteDocumentLibrary/Publications/1_2016_JRC_WAD_brochure_full.pdf.
Land footprint scenarios. A discussion paper including a literature review and scenario analysis on the land use related to changes in Europe’s consumption patterns Report for Friends of the Earth Europe. (eds. Giljum, S. and Kennerley, P. R.), available at: www.foeeurope.org/sites/default/files/seri_land_footprint_scenario_nov2013.pdf.
Mullan, D. Soil erosion under the impacts of future climate change: Assessing the statisticalsignificance of future changes and the potential on-site and off-site problems, available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/257169507_Soil_erosion_under_the_impacts_of_future_climate_change_Assessing_the_statistical_significance_of_future_changes_and_the_potential_on-site_and_off-site_problems.
Nearing, M.A., Pruski, F.F. and O`Neal, M.R. (2004), Expected climate change impact on soil erosion rates: a review. Journal of soil and water conservation,vol.59. no. 1, pp. 43–50.
Tinker, B., Goudriaan, J., Teng, P., Swift, M., Linder, S. and van de Geijn, S. Global change impacts on agriculture, forestry and soils: The programme of the global change and terrestrial ecosystems core project of IGBP, available at: http://www.fao.org/docrep/w5183e/w5183e0e.htm#TopOfPage.
FAO. The State of the World’s land and water resources for Food and Agriculture, Managing systems at risk. (2011), available at: http://www.fao.org/docrep/017/i1688e/i1688e.pdf.
FAO. Corporate document repository. Fischer, G., Frohberg, K., Parry, M. and Rosenzweig, S. The potential effects of climate change on world food production and security, available at: http://www.fao.org/docrep/w5183e/w5183e0b.htm.
Reilly, J. Climate change, global agriculture and regional vulnerability, available at:http://www.fao.org/docrep/w5183e/w5183e0c.htm#TopOfPage
European environmental agency. Projected changes in water-limited crop yield, available at: http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/figures/projected-changes-in-water-limited.
Kryvoruchenko, Z. R. (2014), Tendencies and potential consequences global and regional climate change. Derzhavne upravlinnya: udoskonalennya ta rozvytok, vol.9 , available at: http://www.dy.nayka.com.ua/?op=1&z=754.
WWF Global. Naslidky zminy klimatu dlya Ukrayiny, available at: http://wwf.panda.org/uk/wwf_ukraine_ukr/climatechange/climate_impacts_ua/http://wwf.panda.org/uk/wwf_ukraine_ukr/climatechange/climate_impacts_ua/.
L'vivs'ka hazeta. The consequences of climate change for Ukraine is occurrence of hurricanes and heat waves, available at: http://gazeta.lviv.ua/ecology/26700.
Bouwer, L. M. (2010), Disasters and Climate Change: Analysis and Methods for Projecting Future Losses from Extreme Weather. Ph.D. thesis, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 141 pp., available at: dare.ubvu.vu.nl/bitstream/1871/16355/1/dissertation.pdf.
Massey, E. (2012), Dosvid Yevropeys'koho Soyuzu v adaptatsiyi do zminy klimatu ta zastosuvannya yoho v Ukrayini [EU experience in adapting to climate change and its application in Ukraine], available at: http://www.osce.org/uk/ukraine/104020?download=true.
Gardiner, N. and Greenhalgh, E. (2014), Using climate data to protect growers and ranchers, available at: https://www.climate.gov/news-features/decision-makers-toolbox/using-climate-data-protect-growers-and-ranchers.
Gardiner, N. and Greenhalgh, E. (2013), Monitoring drought, available at: https://www.climate.gov/news-features/decision-makers-toolbox/monitoring-drought.
Kazakova, I. V. (2015), Foreign experience in combating land degradation] / "Okhorona gruntiv ta pidvyshchennya yikh rodyuchosti [Protection and improvement of soil fertility]. Materialy Vseukrayins'koyi naukovo-praktychnoyi konferentsiyi. Odesa. 16-17 september, pp.88.
World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies. About WOCAT, available at: https://www.wocat.net.