THE IMPACT OF GLOBAL CHANGES AT SOIL RESOURCES AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
AbstractIt is considered that the driving forces of global change are: changes in the composition of the atmosphere; climate change; and land use changes caused by socio-economic factors and climate change. The purpose of the article was to identify and summarize the available effects of global change on the world's soil resources and to identify the main trends in agricultural production associated with these changes. The article describes the most visible evidences of global change on the planet, in particular climate changes (including the territory of Ukraine). It was revealed that in Ukraine, the increasing of average temperature is predicted to 2°C with fluctuations during the year by 1,5-2,6°C, in 2025-2049, and in 2050-2074 the increasing of average annual temperature is predicted by 3,45°C relative to the base period (1980-2004). It was studied and summarized evidence of the impact of climate change on soil resources related to urban sprawl, melting ice, human impact, extreme events, flooding etc; and on agriculture, such as the earlier emergence of green forest limits shifts, the emergence of a growing number of alien plant species, increase / decrease in crop yields etc. The impacts on the soil because of climate change was attributed with the influence of organic matter, soil biology and soil degradation. The factors of positive and negative impact of global warming and the increasing CO2 on the yield of crops were analyzed, which included the positive physiological effects of CO2 and the extended growing season (during simulation improve yield) and the reducing of water availability, poor vernalization and reduce the growing season (during simulation lowering productivity). The modern methods of adaptation and mitigation of these changes in different regions were described, including management in areas prone to floods and other risks; urban planning and program updates, ecological restoration; soil conservation; afforestation and reforestation; green infrastructure etc.
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