The relationship between economic globalization and ecological footprint: empirical evidence for developed and developing countries

Keywords: ecological footprint, economic globalization, environment, panel analysis.


Purpose. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between economic globalization and the ecological footprint in countries with different levels of development using a Feasible Generalized Least Squares (FGLS) analysis.

Methodology / approach. The study covers the years 1970 to 2017 for 65 developed and developing countries. The ecological footprint is the dependent variable in the study’s model, and the GDP and KOF Globalization Index (KOF) index are the independent variables. The CADF panel unit root test, which takes into account cross-sectional dependence, was used to choose the appropriate test method for the analysis. Feasible Generalised Least Square and Westerlund ECM panel cointegration analyses were performed for model estimation.

Results. Economic globalization and ecological footprint have a considerable relationship, according to the results of FGLS and Westerlund cointegration analysis. Economic globalization has a long-run negative impact on the ecological footprint. Environmental problems are being addressed as a result of more economic globalization, faster technology development, and consequently decreased usage of natural resources. Furthermore, as globalization and communication technologies develop, societies will have more information on the importance of the environment. As a result, they can show more eco-friendly behavior.

Originality / scientific novelty. Several studies in the literature include the cointegration relationship between economic globalization and ecological footprint. Although there are few studies on this topic in the literature, one aspect that distinguishes this study is the use of an estimation method that takes into account the cross-sectional dependent, second-generation unit root tests, FGLS cointegration analysis, and Westerlund ECM analysis.

Practical value / implications. The importance of the findings is that increased economic globalization has a negative effect on the ecological footprint. As economic globalization increases, so does communication technology, as well as international trade. Individuals become more environmentally conscious as a result of communication, which generally reduces ecological footprint.


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How to Cite
Sağlam Çeliköz, Y., Yildiz, T., Arslan, Ünal, & Kirmizioğlu, H. (2022). The relationship between economic globalization and ecological footprint: empirical evidence for developed and developing countries. Agricultural and Resource Economics: International Scientific E-Journal, 8(4), 109-133.